Buffalo Breeds In Pakistan | Nili-Ravi & Kundi

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           Buffalo is playing a vital role in the livestock sector of Pakistan and it is a major contributor to the country’s economy. Buffalo in Pakistan is being mainly used for milk and meat purposes and to a lesser extent for draught purposes. Out of total milk produced in the country, 68% is being produced by buffalo. Also, Pakistan is the second-highest buffalo milk producer with 19.9MT milk production.

Buffalo belongs to Genus Bubalus and specie is B.Bubalis.

There are two important types of buffalo breeds throughout the world

  • Riverine Buffalo
  • Swamp Buffalo

Buffalo in Pakistan is mainly of Riverine type, and it is farmed for milk production. In Pakistan, there are five buffalo breeds

  • Nili-Ravi
  • Kundi
  • Azi-Kheli (or Azakheli)
  • Nili
  • Ravi

The two breeds Ravi and Nili are less reared these days due to their less number and less production as compared to their crossbreed Nili-Ravi


  • Nili-Ravi is known as the Black Gold of Pakistan and also considered the best buffalo breed in the world.
  • The home track of the Nili-Ravi breed lies between the rivers Satluj and Ravi.
  • Nili-Ravi is a cross of two breeds Nili and Ravi, these were two separate breeds until 1963.
  • The body is wedge-shaped with black color.
  • This breed has five white marks over the muzzle, forehead, lower parts of legs, udder, and tail switch that’s why also called “Panj Kalian.”
  • In lactating animals udder is fully developed.
  • Male attains maturity at age of 30 months while Female attains maturity at age of 36 months.
  • Milk yield is about 1800-2500 liters/lactation with a 6.5% milk percentage.
  • Average male body weight reaches 550-650kg while female body weight is between 350-450kg.


  • The home tract of Kundi lies on both sides of the Indus river from Kashmore to Shah Bandar (Sindh).
  • The body is jet-black colored with a broad forehead, short neck, short horns, and medium-sized ears.
  • The horns are broad at the base and taper upward and inward giving a fish hook shape that’s why it is called “Kundi.”
  • In lactating animals udder is moderately developed.
  • Males reach puberty at the age of 30 months while Female reaches puberty at age of 36 months.
  • Milk yield is about 1700-2200 liters/lactation with 6% milkfat and lactation duration of 320 days.
  • The average body weight of males and females is 500-600kg and 300-400kg respectively.


  • This breed can be found throughout the Swat valley.
  • Color variation in this breed can be found from complete albino to piebald to even complete black body color.
  • The azi-Kheli breed has been named after a local tribe “Aziz Khell.”
  • Young animals have normal brownish hairs but the hair coat becomes scanty in adults.
  • The tail is characteristically short and slender.
  • In lactating animals udder is fairly developed.
  • The estimated body weight is 350-450kg.
  • Milk yield per lactation is 1800 liters.
  • The average age at first calving is 45 months.
  • These buffalos are generally docile.
Azi kheli buffalo


      Livestock and dairy development board.

      Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.

     Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.